Immunotherapy cancer treatment: #WorldNoTobaccoDay is celebrated every year on 31 May. To say no tobacco (no to gutkha) is simply to say no to disease. And to say no to tobacco disease is to say no to cancer. Let us tell you that the rapid growth in the world of cancer, precaution is its only cure. However, now new procedure immunotherapy is helping to keep cancer patients alive for more days.
According to the report, by 2012, 14.1 million people had died of cancer. But now this figure has risen by 20.6% to reach 17 million in 2018. This figure itself shows its horrors. Earlier cancer was called death. But now with the efforts of researchers, the treatment of cancer is possible to a large extent.
According to the report of the American Cancer Society, in 1975–77, the rate of survival after breast cancer for 5 years was 75%. This increased to 91% between 2006 and 2012. The exact same difference is being seen in other types of cancer.
Traditionally, most cancers are treated with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and sometimes all. These treatments have been successful to a great extent and researchers are also continuously improving it. But even then, they are not able to succeed to a great extent in the treatment of lame (lung), brain, pancreatic and triple-negative breast cancer.
There are also side effects of radiation and chemotherapy:
On the other hand, there are some side effects of radiation and chemotherapy. Such as mouth sores, weight fluctuations, hair loss, tiredness, fever, these are the reasons which make the patient very weak. Researchers are continuously working on it and have reached better results in recent years.
Immunotherapy is being seen as the most curious treatment for cancer treatment. In this, the immune system is improved to eliminate cancer cells. However, the concept of immunotherapy has been in operation since 1900. But in recent times, research has seen that it is proving to be a better way to kill cancer cells. At the same time, improvement is being seen in cancer patients.
… no more death:
The question arises as to when does cancer occurs. The answer is when somebody cells break carelessly. These cancers disintegrate into cells that migrate to other parts of the body. One of the biggest reasons for tumor cell growth in the body is the deterioration of the immune system.
In some cases, the immune systems stop responding. However, cancer cells adapt to it and the immune system deteriorates. The purpose of immunotherapy is to change it, especially for cancer cells. It stimulates patients’ immune systems to identify tumor cells and then uses drugs to eliminate them as well as strengthen the body.
Immunotherapy is being developed in many different ways here: –
1. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy: –
Demonstrates unsexually-derivative clones from monoclonal cells. Antibodies are a blood protein, which is developed by an immune cell. Which is specifically to prevent and neutralize antigen uptake.
This whole process aims to target antibodies to cancer cells that are designed and produced primarily in the lab. It is then injected into the patient’s body.
2. Checkpoint Inhabitors:
The drugs stimulate the immune system to identify and eliminate tumor cells. The important checkpoint inhibitors here are PD1 / PD-L1 and CTLA-4 proteins. Research has found that these medicines can treat dangerous cancers like lung cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, larynx, and nasal cancer.
3. Adoptive Cell Therapy:
It is also known as CAR T-cell therapy. In this, T-cells are removed from the patient’s body and work on it in the Phil Lab. After this, the capacity of tea cells is enhanced so that it can fight cancer. Once a sufficient quantity of T-cells is found, it is again injected into the body of the patient. This makes the patient’s immune system better.
4. Cancer medicine:
In this process, the antigen from the patient’s cancer cells is removed and brought to the lab and injected again. The immune cyst then kills tumor cells or reduces the tumor size. This attempt is mostly successful in prostate cancer.
Work is still being done on these things:
Immunotherapy is still seen as a new step to treat cancer. More research is still to be done on this. America is among the countries that have adopted it earlier.
In 2015, the American Food and Drug Administration, created to monitor public health, passed the first Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor. A few years later, the Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor was also passed on for lymphoma, head and nose cancer and bladder cancer.
In another study, it has been found that 16% of patients suffering from an advanced stage of lung cancer were treated through checkpoint inhibitors and they remain alive for more than 5 years after treatment. In comparison, only 4% of people were alive with chemotherapy.
The patients involved in this study appeared to be suffering from fever but they could easily overcome it. At the same time, there are many problems with radiation and chemotherapy.
In 2017, India has approved its first checkpoint inhibitor drug. This can treat patients suffering from lung cancer. Presently, the Drug Controller General of India has approved 4 checkpoint inhibitors for lung cancer.
A large-scale production unit is needed for the set-up of immunotherapy drugs in India. Work is being done in this direction. Indian Medicine and Scientists have formed an immunological society of its own at the Tata Memorial Center in Mumbai.