kidney disease types symptoms


kidney disease types symptoms

subject matter:

  • introduction
  • Symptoms
  • reason
  • The diagnosis
  • treatment
  • Prevention
  • Complications



kidney disease types symptoms: Kidney infection is a painful and unpleasant disease that usually occurs when bacteria reach one or both kidneys from your bladder.

The medical name of a kidney infection is pyelonephritis. It is more severe and different from cystitis, a common infection of the bladder that makes urination painful.

Kidney infection does not cause serious harm if treated immediately but it will make you feel very unwell. If a kidney infection is left untreated, it can worsen and cause permanent kidney damage.

Symptoms of a kidney infection often begin within a few hours. You may have fever, chills, feeling sick and maybe on one side or backache.

When to see your doctor:

You should see your doctor if you have a fever and persistent stomach, lower back or genital pain, or if you notice a change in the normal order of your urine.

Most kidney infections require immediate treatment with antibiotics to prevent infection from damaging the kidney or spreading to the bloodstream. You may also have to take analgesics.

If you are very vulnerable to the effects of an infection, for example, if you already have health problems or you are pregnant, you may be admitted to the hospital as a precaution and intravenous drip antibiotics Can be treated by giving.

Antibiotic treatment is usually a very effective way to treat kidney infection and you will start feeling better after about two weeks.

In rare cases, kidney infections can cause further problems. These include blood poisoning (sepsis) and the formation of pus in the kidneys which is called abscess.
It is said.

What causes kidney infection?


A kidney infection usually occurs when bacteria – often a type of E. coli – pass from the anus to the urethra (the tube through which urine passes) and through the bladder to one or both kidneys.

Who is in danger:

Kidney infections are comparatively rare.

They can occur at any age but are more common in women. In fact, women are six times more likely to develop kidney infections than men. This is because the urethra of women is short, allowing bacteria to reach the kidneys.

Younger women are at greater risk because they are more sexually active, and are more likely to develop kidney infections due to frequent sex.

Younger children are also more likely to have kidney infections because they may be born with a urinary tract abnormality or a condition called vesicle-uretic reflux, where there is a reverse flow of urine from the bladder to the kidneys.

Can kidney infection be prevented?

You can reduce the chances of kidney infection by keeping your bladder and urethra free of bacteria. This can be done with simple measures such as drinking a lot of fluids and getting into the habit of maintaining good hygiene of the genitalia.


Symptoms of a kidney infection usually increase quite rapidly over a few hours or days. Common symptoms include:

  • One side pain next to you
  • Pain and discomfort in your lower back and around the genitals
  • High temperature (it can reach 39.5 ° C or 103.1ºF)
  • Shiver
  • Chills
  • Feeling very weak or tired
  • loss of appetite
  • Feeling nauseous
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea

You may also have other symptoms like cystitis or urethritis (urethral infection). These additional symptoms may include:

  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Need to urinate frequently or immediately
  • Feeling that you are completely unable to urinate
  • Blood in your urine
  • Cloudy or foul urine
  • Pain in your lower abdomen



Children with kidney infections may also have additional symptoms such as:

  • Lack of energy
  • Irritability
  • Less food and/or vomiting
  • Non-expected rate
  • stomach ache
  • Jaundice (yellowing of white part of skin and eyes)
  • Blood in urine
  • The unpleasant smell of urine
  • Urine in bed

When to seek medical advice:

kidney disease types symptoms: Contact your doctor if you have high temperatures, persistent pain, or if you notice a change in your normal order of urination. If you think your child may have a kidney infection, contact your doctor immediately.

If you have blood in your urine, you should always see your doctor so that the cause can be investigated.

Kidney infections require quick treatment with antibiotics to help relieve symptoms and prevent complications from escalating.

Your doctor may do some simple tests to detect a kidney infection.


Kidney infection occurs when bacteria enter and infect one or both of your kidneys. The bacteria is usually a type called E. coli, which lives in your intestine.

Bacteria go upstream of your urinary tract from the end of the urethra, first infecting your bladder and then your kidneys.

It is believed that bacteria reach your urinary tract due to accidentally spreading from your anus to your urethra. This can happen when you wipe your butt after going to the toilet and dirty toilet paper comes in contact with your genitals. It can also occur during sex.

In rare cases, a kidney infection can develop when bacteria or fungi infect the skin and the infection can spread to your bloodstream and your kidneys. However, this type of infection usually occurs only in people with a weakened immune system.

Who is most likely to get a kidney infection?


Kidney infection is most common in women and children, as well as other urinary tract infections (UTIs) such as cystitis

There is a risk of:

In women, the urethra is closer to the anus than in men, making it easier for bacteria from the anus to accidentally enter the urethra. The female urethra is much shorter than the male urethra (which passes through the penis). Which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder and go to the kidneys.

Other factors may also put you at greater risk of having a kidney infection, including:

  • Children with constipation may also be at risk of having a condition such as kidney stones or an enlarged prostate that blocks your urinary tract.
  • Born with an abnormality in his urinary tract.
  • A condition that prevents you from emptying your bladder completely, such as an injury to your spinal cord – this may allow any bacteria in your bladder to grow and spread.
  • Having a weak immune system – for example due to type 2 diabetes, or as a side effect of treatment that weakens the immune system, such as chemotherapy
  • Due to the infection of the prostate gland, which is called prostatitis – infection can spread from the prostate gland to the kidney.
  • A urinary catheter (a thin, flexible tube inserted into your bladder to remove urine)

Because of:

  • Being a female and active in sexual activity – sexual intercourse can irritate the urethra and allow bacteria to easily pass into your bladder.
  • In a man who has anal sex – bacteria can enter the urethra in the bladder.
  • Being pregnant – It can cause physical changes that slow the flow of urine from your body and make it easier for bacteria to spread to the kidneys.

The diagnosis:

To find out if you have a kidney infection, your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and recent medical history.

They will usually assess your general health by taking your temperature and measuring your blood pressure.

Urine test:

A urine test can help determine if you have a urinary tract infection (UTI). Yes or No. A small sample of urine is taken in the test and examined to see if there are any bacteria in it.

However, a urine test cannot tell if the infection – if you have – is in your kidneys or in any other part of your urinary tract, such as the bladder.

For your doctor to believe that at you have a kidney infection, you must have a positive urine test and some specific symptoms, such as fever or pain on your side.

Hospital scan:


You can be sent to the hospital for further testing if:

  • Your symptoms do not respond to the treatment of antibiotics.
  • Your symptoms suddenly worsen.
  • You have some symptoms that are not usually associated with a kidney infection.
  • You are prone to complications of kidney infection.

In these circumstances, a scan can check your urinary tract for signs of problems. Contains:

  • A computed tomography (CT) scan, where a scanner takes a series of X-rays and a computer is used to collect a large image of your urinary tract.
  • An ultrasound scan, which uses sound waves to create an image inside your body.
  • An isotope scan, where the dye is injected into the bloodstream via injection and a series of X-rays are taken.


Most people with kidney infections can be treated at home with antibiotics, and possibly also given analgesics.

The medicines:

If you are receiving treatment at home, you will usually be prescribed a course of antibiotic tablets or capsules that last between seven and 14 days.

For most people – other than pregnant women – antibiotics called ciprofloxacin or co-amoxiclav are common side effects of ciprofloxacin and nausea.
Is included.

Co-amoxiclav may make the contraceptive pill and contraceptive patch less effective, so you may need to use some other form of contraception during treatment.

A 14-day course of an antibiotic called cephalexin is recommended for pregnant women.

Generally, you will start feeling better soon after the treatment starts and you will feel completely better after about two weeks.

If your symptoms show no signs of improvement 24 hours after the start of treatment, contact your doctor for advice.



Taking a painkiller such as paracetamol can help relieve pain and high-temperature symptoms.

However, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen are generally not recommended to relieve pain during a kidney infection. This is because they may increase the risk of kidney problems in the future.

Self-help tips:

If you have a kidney infection, do not try to use it without sitting on the toilet seat when you go to the toilet, as a result, your bladder will not be completely empty.

Drinking plenty of fluids is also important, as it will help prevent dehydration and help flush out bacteria from your kidneys. Aim to drink enough water so that you remove all the yellow-colored urine.

Make sure you relax a lot. Despite being a normal healthy and strong human being, a kidney infection is physically exhausting. It can take up to two weeks to become fit enough to return to work.

Hospital treatment:

In some cases, you will need to be treated in a hospital rather than at home. Hospital treatment may be required if:

  • You are seriously dehydrated.
  • You are unable to eat or swallow any liquids or medicines.
  • You have additional symptoms that suggest you may have blood poisoning, such as a rapid heartbeat and loss of consciousness.
  • You are pregnant and you also have high temperatures.
  • You are particularly weak and your general health is poor.
  • Failed to improve your symptoms within 24 hours of starting treatment with antibiotics.
  • Your immune system is weak.
  • There is an external organism inside your urinary tracts, such as a kidney stone or urinary catheter.
  • You have diabetes.
  • You are over 65 years old.
  • There is an underlying condition in your body that affects your kidney function such as polycystic kidney disease or chronic kidney disease.

Most children with kidney infections will be treated in the hospital.

If you are hospitalized with a kidney infection, you will probably be given a drip so that you can be given fluids to help keep you hydrated. Antibiotics may also be given via a drip.

There will be regular blood and urine tests to monitor your health and see how effectively antibiotics are fighting infection.

Most people benefit from treatment. Unless there is a complication, usually three to seven days are enough to leave the hospital. Treatment usually begins with a tablet or capsule after you stop giving antibiotics via a drip.


The best way to prevent kidney infection is to keep your bladder and urethra free from bacteria.

These self-help tips show how you can do this.

Drink lots of fluids:


Drinking lots of fluids, especially water, will help wash away bacteria from your bladder and urinary tract.

Drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry extracts can also help prevent urinary tract infection (UTI). But if you are taking warfarin, a drug used to stop blood clots, then you should avoid taking cranberry juice or extracts, cranberry juice can make the effect of warfarin more potent, hence the excessive bleeding There is a danger.

Toilet tips:

To help keep your urinary tract free from bacteria:

  • Go to the toilet as soon as you feel the need to urinate.
  • Wipe from front to back after going to the toilet.
  • Get into the habit of washing your genitals thoroughly every day and before having sex.
  • Empty your bladder after having sex.
  • If you are a woman, avoid using the toilet seat without sitting, as this condition can often leave urine in the bladder.

Treat constipation:

Constipation can increase the chances of developing urinary tract infections (UTI), so try to treat any constipation immediately.

Recommended treatments for constipation include:
  • Add up to 20-30 grams of fiber in your diet in a day.
  • Use a mild laxative for a short time.
  • Drink lots of fluids.

See your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 14 days (or seven days for constipated children).

Beware of contraceptives:

If you have had a urinary tract infection (considered more than three years old), avoid using spermicidal-coated condoms or diaphragm. This is because spermicidal can stimulate bacterial production.

Use lubricated condoms without spermicides, as a non-lubricated condom can irritate the urethra and make it more susceptible to infection.


Most kidney infections are successfully treated without any complications, although some people may have problems.

Complications of kidney infection are rare, but you may have:

  • Have a baby.
  • They are over 65.
  • Are pregnant.
  • You have diabetes, chronic kidney disease or sickle cell anemia.
  • You have had a kidney transplant (especially the first three months after the transplant).
  • The immune system is weak.
  • Kidney infection while in the hospital.

Some of the main complications of kidney infection are mentioned below.

Kidney abscess:

A renal abscess is a rare but serious complication of a kidney infection. This is when pus forms inside the kidney tissue.

You are considered to be at risk of renal abscess if you have diabetes.

Symptoms of kidney abscesses are similar to kidney infections. The most common are:

  • The high temperature of 38 ° C (100.4ºF) or more.
  • Chills.
  • stomach ache.
  • loss of appetite.
  • Pain while urinating.

Kidney abscesses are potentially serious because the bacteria inside the abscess can spread to other parts of your body, such as in your bloodstream or lungs, and can be fatal.

Small abscesses can usually be treated with antibiotics via a drip. Surgery is usually required for large abscesses. This involves removing the pus from the abscess using a needle inserted into the kidney.

Blood poisoning:

Blood poisoning (also known as sepsis) is another rare, but potentially fatal, complication of kidney infection. It occurs when bacteria spread from the kidneys to the bloodstream. Once the bacteria is in your bloodstream, the infection can spread to any part of your body, including all major organs.

In someone with a kidney infection, symptoms of blood poisoning include:

  • Low blood pressure in which you feel dizzy upon standing.
  • Confusion or deviation.
  • excessive sweating.
  • Uncontrolled shaking or shaking.
  • High temperature or below normal body temperature (below 36ºC, or 96.8ºF).
  • pale skin.
  • Fast bang.
  • breathlessness.

Blood poisoning is a medical emergency that usually requires admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the hospital while antibiotics are used to fight infection.

If you are taking certain medications for diabetes, such as metformin or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, you may have to temporarily stop taking it until it recovers. This is because they can cause kidney damage during an episode of blood poisoning.

Severe infection:

Another rare but potentially fatal complication of kidney infection is a condition called emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN).

EPN is a serious infection in which the kidney tissue is rapidly destroyed and the infection causes bacteria to release a toxic gas, which is formed inside the kidney.

The real cause of EPN is unclear, but almost all cases occur in people with diabetes.

Common treatments include emergency surgery to remove some part of the kidney, or the entire infected kidney. It is possible to live a full and active life even with only one kidney.

Kidney failure:

In very rare cases, a kidney infection can cause severe kidney damage resulting in kidney failure. This is when the kidneys stop functioning properly.

Kidney failure is potentially fatal, but its dialysis or a kidney transplant. Can be treated with.




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